In order to strengthen and standardize laboratory fire safety management, prevent and reduce fire hazards, and protect the life and property of our school's teachers, students and staff, and school property, in accordance with the Fire Protection Law of the People's Republic of China, Fire Safety Management Regulations of Colleges and Universities and other laws and regulations , Formulate this specification.
2 Scope of application
This specification applies to the fire safety management of various laboratories of Shanghai University of Science and Technology.
3 Fire classification and applicable fire extinguishers
According to the classification standard determined by Fire Classification (GB/T 4968-2008), according to the type and combustion characteristics of combustibles, fires are divided into 6 categories.
Types of fire:
(1) Class A fire
Class A fires refer to solid material fires. This kind of substance usually has the nature of organic matter, and it can produce scorching embers when burned. For example, wood and wood products, cotton, wool, hemp, paper, food and other materials fire.
(2) Class B fire
Class B fire refers to liquid or meltable solid material fires. For example, gasoline, kerosene, crude oil, methanol, ethanol, asphalt, paraffin and other substances fire.
(3) Class C fire
Class C fire refers to gas fire. For example, fires caused by the combustion or explosion of coal gas, natural gas, methane, ethane, hydrogen, ethane and other gases.
(4) Class D fire
Class D fires refer to metal fires. For example, potassium, sodium, magnesium, titanium, lithium, aluminum-magnesium alloy and other metal fires.
(5) Class E fire
Class E fire refers to a live fire, that is, a fire in which an object burns with electricity. For example, electrical equipment such as transformers, household appliances, electric heating equipment, and electric wires and cables burn fires.
(6) Class F fire
Class F fire refers to the fire of cooking items in cooking appliances. For example, fires caused by the burning of animal and vegetable fats, meat products, and oil products.
At present, the commonly used fire extinguishers can be divided into: foam, dry powder, halogenated alkane, carbon dioxide, acid and alkali, water, etc. according to the fire extinguishing agent. The applicability of common fire extinguishers is summarized in Table 2 below. Refer to Appendix A for the fire extinguishing methods of some hazardous chemicals. Common fire extinguishing equipment in the laboratory is shown in Appendix B.
Table 2 Applicability of common fire extinguishers
Do not use water, foam and water-containing substances when extinguishing fires. Use suffocation fire extinguishing methods to isolate oxygen for fire extinguishing or use dry powder fire extinguishers for disposal
4 Laboratory fire safety management
4.1 Power consumption management
The power fire safety management of the laboratory shall meet the following requirements:
(1) The installation, use, and maintenance of electrical circuits and electrical equipment in the laboratory must comply with relevant national standards, and professional electricians are responsible for the construction. Newly installed or added electrical equipment can only be energized for use after passing the inspection.
(2) The electrical and heating equipment used in the laboratory should be qualified products and should meet the requirements of relevant safety standards; electrical equipment should be checked and repaired frequently, and it must be carried out if it is found that it may cause sparks, short circuits, heat, insulation damage, and aging. Repairs are not allowed to run or use with faults.
(3) The laboratory shall not connect wires randomly, and shall not overload electricity. It is strictly forbidden to use metal wires instead of fuses. Wire connectors should be firm and reliable, and wires with electrical charges should not be tied, twisted or buckled. It is not suitable to store combustible materials under the switch.
(4) Air switches should be used in the laboratory and equipped with necessary leakage protectors; the fixed power sockets in the laboratory shall not be disassembled or changed without permission. Knife switches, wooden switchboards and fancy wires shall not be used.
(5) Keep a safe distance from combustibles around electrical equipment, and a distance of 0.5m or more is recommended.
(6) The electrical circuits and equipment should be inspected and tested regularly, and long-term overload operation is strictly prohibited.
(7) Electrical equipment should be equipped with sufficient electric power and wires.
(8) Grounding safety must be ensured for precision instruments, high-power instruments and equipment, and instruments and equipment that use strong electricity.
(9) During holidays, the laboratory should cut off non-essential power supplies.
For details, please refer to General Electric Management Code of Shanghai University of Science and Technology Laboratory.
4.2 Personnel management
(1) The laboratory shall require personnel to strictly abide by the relevant fire safety regulations, such as: no smoking, no littering, no escape from work, no blocking of safe passages, no illegal use of heaters, no illegal private Pulling wires in disorder, not violating operating regulations, not using fire-fighting equipment for other purposes, not storing flammable and explosive materials in violation of regulations, and not allowed to cook or stay.
(2) The laboratory should provide firefighting training to let the laboratory personnel understand the fire risk, preventive measures, fire fighting methods and escape methods of their posts; they can call the police, use fire extinguishers, deal with dangerous accidents, and escape.
(3) Participants in the experiment should strictly implement the laboratory safety operating procedures, check the experimental equipment, circuits, water, gas, pipelines and other facilities for damage and abnormal phenomena, and make safety inspection records.
(4) Chemical waste (waste liquid, reagent bottles, packaging, etc.) and remaining medicines, reagents, etc. generated during the experiment are strictly prohibited to be thrown away or dumped into the sewer at will. The experimenters should label them according to the nature and category. Carry out classified storage and properly handle;
(5) Laboratory personnel should be familiar with the on-off valves of water, electricity, and gas (including gas cylinders). When using flammable and explosive gases, they should always check the pipelines, valve switches and gas cylinders for leaks;
(6) When the experiment is in progress, personnel shall not leave their posts without authorization. When leaving, the ongoing experiment items shall be properly arranged to prevent fire risks.
(7) No one is allowed to damage or misappropriate, dismantle, or disable it without authorization, or occupy fire separation distances, or block fire control passages. Special circumstances must be reported to the superior for approval;
(8) The laboratory should strengthen the management of on-duty personnel. During the on-duty period, they should not leave their posts. They should patrol the area under their responsibility and pay special attention to key fire prevention parts. If problems are found, they should be reported in time and dealt with decisively to prevent the situation from expanding.
4.3 Device management
The use of laboratory professional equipment must be operated in accordance with safety regulations, and overloading or other operations that violate safety regulations are strictly prohibited. Do not fiddle with equipment at will, or operate professional equipment with unknown startup performance without authorization.
(1) The various gas cylinders in the laboratory should be kept away from fire sources, and should be placed in a ventilated place. The hydrogen, oxygen, and acetylene cylinders should not be mixed together;
(2) Use electric equipment such as high-power electric heaters, and place no flammable or combustible materials around;
(3) Equipment that has been in service for a long time and equipment with potential safety hazards should be scrapped in time to eliminate safety hazards;
(4) Refrigerators, high temperature, heating, high pressure, high radiation, high-speed movement and other potentially dangerous instruments and equipment should pay attention to strengthening fire control management; incompatible items and flammable liquids with low flash points are not allowed to be stored in incubators and electric ice ；
(5) After the experiment, all kinds of experiment equipment, equipment and articles must be sorted out, and safety inspections should be carried out to remove flammable and explosive materials, and then leave after confirming safety.
4.4 Dangerous goods such as flammable and explosive
The storage and use of flammable and explosive hazardous materials and wastes in laboratories shall be strictly managed and operated in accordance with the relevant regulations of the state and schools, labelled strictly in accordance with the nature and category, stored properly, and formulated emergency treatment plans and preventive measures; laboratories; Corresponding fire safety measures such as ventilation, fire prevention, explosion prevention, and alarm should be implemented, and regulations and systems for the safety management of dangerous goods shall be established and perfected; it is strictly forbidden to store flammable and explosive dangerous goods in non-specified places. For details, please refer to Shanghai University of Science and Technology Chemical Management Regulations.
Refer to Appendix C for the fire protection precautions of flammable and explosive chemicals.
4.5 Fire management
The laboratory should establish a fire safety management system, implement strict fire safety management on the use of open flames, and prohibit the use of open flames in places with fire and explosion hazards. Those who need to use open flame experiments should go through the approval procedures in advance and implement the on-site supervisors. The operators should abide by the safety regulations, strictly abide by the fire safety operation regulations, and adopt strict fire safety measures; the laboratory conducts electric welding, gas welding, gas cutting, When grinding wheel cutting and other operations with fire and explosion hazards, strictly abide by the fire safety operating regulations.
5 Fire emergency evacuation plan and drill
The laboratory shall formulate a targeted emergency response plan for fire fighting emergencies and arrange fire drills. The relevant information on electrical, biological, radiation, chemical, and inflammable and explosive materials involved in the emergency response plan shall be reported for the record.
The laboratory shall establish a fire fighting and emergency evacuation plan drill system, the content of which shall include:
(1) Organizational structure;
(2) Procedures for calling the police and receiving the police;
(3) Organizational procedures and measures for emergency evacuation;
(4) Procedures and measures for fighting the first fire;
(5) Procedures and measures for communication and safety protection and rescue;
(6) Other content that needs to be clarified.
When the laboratory confirms that a fire has occurred, it should immediately activate the fire fighting and emergency evacuation plan, and carry out the following tasks at the same time:
(1) Report to relevant agencies;
(2) The personnel on duty perform the corresponding duties in the plan;
(3) Organizing and guiding the evacuation of people and rescuing trapped people;
(4) Use fire-fighting facilities to fight the initial fire;
(5) Maintain order at the scene.